The online notebook of Michael Nielsen. My work aims to build systems to support creativity and discovery. Currently, my main projects are working on metascience, programmable matter, and tools for thought. In the past I've worked on quantum computing, open science, and artificial intelligence, and there's a lot of crossover with my current interests.

I like to write books. You can also get a sense of some of my favorite projects over the years. And some of my current work is described below.

Tags: quantum, display, qis, paper, tft, misc, metascience, scienceplusplus, qc, os, science, ci, physics, ai, fom, math, majorization, sb, cs, wn, df, book, podcast, talk, ongoing, quanta, publishing, universality, gtd, personal, email, places, ea, writing, twitter, design, art, top, sciam, thesis

Ongoing: reading, places, quotes, slow, sporadica, unusual, workshop template

Elsewhere:- Quantum Country: An introduction to quantum computing and quantum mechanics. Presented in a new mnemonic medium intended to make it almost effortless to remember what you read.
- Neural Networks and Deep Learning: Introduction to the core principles.
- Reinventing Discovery: the New Era of Networked Science: How collective intelligence and open science are transforming the way we do science.
- Quantum Computation and Quantum Information

I believe far better social processes are possible in science, processes that can activate great latent potential for discovery. However, at present the social processes mostly change only very slowly, despite clear problems. How can we create a world in which science rapidly and routinely greatly improves its social processes? Much of my thinking is under the scienceplusplus tag; here's a few selected items:

- The trouble in comparing different approaches to science funding (Michael Nielsen and Kanjun Qiu)
- In what sense is the science of science a science?
- Science is getting less bang for its buck (Patrick Collison and Michael Nielsen)
- Reinventing Discovery: the New Era of Networked Science

It is sometimes implied physics is near an end – a "theory of everything" – because we understand so much about the basic rules governing matter and our universe. That's like assuming computer science would end with the Turing machine, computing's "theory of everything". Of course, it kickstarted a massive explosion. I believe we're currently beginning to do for matter what Turing and successors did for computing. Can we make matter truly programmable? Can we invent new high-level abstractions and design ides, doing for matter what people like John McCarthy, Alan Kay, and co did for computing? Much of my thinking is under the fom tag; here's a few selected items:

- Maps of Matter
- How do scanning tunnelling microscopes work?
- The varieties of material existence
- In what sense is quantum computing a science?
- Interesting problems: The Church-Turing-Deutsch Principle
- The Fermionic canonical commutation relations and the Jordan-Wigner transform

- Notes on creative context 2022-08-04
- Email thoughts on metascience 2022-07-18
- Quick notes on the Las Vegas Strip 2022-07-07
- Notes on Effective Altruism 2022-06-02
- Working notes on the role of vision papers in basic science 2022-05-28
- Cosmos: working notes, 1 2022-02-16
- The trouble in comparing different approaches to science funding (Michael Nielsen and Kanjun Qiu) 2022-02-09
- Workshop template 2022-02-04
- In what sense is the science of science a science? 2022-01-13
- Surprising things believed by extraordinary scientists 2022-01-01
- Working notes on the Dirac equation 2021-11-19
- How to use a personal website to enhance your ability to think and create? 2021-10-11
- Rough working notes on the Alcubierre 'warp drive' spacetime 2021-09-30
- Reflections on 'The Bitter Lesson' 2021-07-22
- Maps of Matter 2021-02-01
- How do scanning tunnelling microscopes work? 2021-02-01
- Spencer Greenberg: Scientific Progress and Political Feedback Loops with Michael Nielsen 2020-11-25
- Slow 2020-02-04
- How can we develop transformative tools for thought? (Andy Matuschak and Michael Nielsen) 2019-10-03
- Scattered notes on writing I 2019-09-26
- Discovery fiction for quantum teleportation 2019-05-24
- Erik Torenberg: What Michael Nielsen Thinks About Basically Everything 2019-04-25
- Quantum Country (Andy Matuschak and Michael Nielsen) 2019-03-19
- Using spaced repetition systems to see through a piece of mathematics 2019-01-12
- What does the quantum state mean? 2018-12-13
- In what sense is quantum computing a science? 2018-12-12
- Science is getting less bang for its buck (Patrick Collison and Michael Nielsen) 2018-11-15
- On the units of bipartite entanglement: Is sixteen ounces of entanglement always equal to one pound? 2018-10-29
- What if we had oracles for common machine learning problems? 2018-09-30
- The varieties of material existence 2018-09-18
- David Perell: Michael Nielsen: Tools for Thought 2018-07-09
- Augmenting Long-term Memory 2018-07-05
- Using Artificial Intelligence to Augment Human Intelligence (Shan Carter and Michael Nielsen) 2017-12-04
- Thought as a Technology 2017-11-29
- RMNIST with annealing and ensembling 2017-11-26
- Reduced MNIST: how well can machines learn from small data? 2017-11-15
- Magic Paper 2017-11-05
- Working notes on Chalktalk 2017-09-01
- Volitional Philanthropy 2017-04-11
- How much do our elite know about human progress? 2016-12-28
- The trouble with definitions 2016-12-02
- Making invisible understanding visible 2016-04-01
- Is AlphaGo Really Such a Big Deal? 2016-03-29
- Striking user interfaces 2016-03-01
- Notes on the Dynabook 2016-03-01
- Toward an Exploratory Medium for Mathematics 2016-02-28
- The Physical Origin of Universal Computing 2015-10-27
- Engelbart: "Augmenting Human Intellect" 2015-08-10
- The Rise of Computer-Aided Explanation 2015-07-23
- Reinventing Explanation 2014-01-31
- How the Bitcoin protocol actually works 2013-12-06
- Neural Networks and Deep Learning 2013-11-25
- The Artist and the Machine 2013-02-06
- Why Bloom filters work the way they do 2012-09-26
- Lisp as the Maxwell's equations of software 2012-04-11
- If correlation doesn't imply causation, then what does? 2012-01-23
- Open Access: a Short Summary 2011-11-30
- The New Einsteins Will be Scientists Who Share (short op-ed) 2011-10-29
- Reinventing Discovery: the New Era of Networked Science 2011-10-23
- The Mismeasurement of Science 2010-11-29
- Massively collaborative mathematics (Tim Gowers and Michael Nielsen) 2009-10-15
- Is Scientific Publishing About to Be Disrupted? 2009-06-29
- Doing Science Online 2009-01-26
- Three Myths about Scientific Peer Review 2009-01-08
- The economics of scientific collaboration 2008-12-29
- The Economics of Scientific Collaboration 2008-12-29
- Why Augmenting Collective Intelligence is Easier than Augmenting Individual Intelligence 2008-10-24
- Suppress innovation, but claim the credit 2008-10-22
- Science beyond individual understanding 2008-09-24
- Science Beyond Individual Understanding 2008-09-24
- Quantum Computing for Everyone 2008-08-28
- Why the World Needs Quantum Mechanics 2008-08-04
- Shirky's Law and why (most) social software fails 2008-07-24
- The future of science 2008-07-17
- Notes on Andrew Odlyzko's "The Economics of Electronic Journals" 2008-05-29
- Rough notes on the Budapest Open Access Initiative 2008-05-29
- Science and Wikipedia 2008-05-21
- Open Science 2008-05-13
- Interrupting Google Search 2008-04-26
- Investing in undervalued human capital: the Y Combinator model 2008-03-13
- The curse of busy-ness 2008-03-13
- Creative collaboration: ideals and reality 2008-03-11
- Criticism is overrated 2008-02-27
- Why isn't University free? 2008-02-25
- Why the h-index is little use 2008-01-31
- The tension between information creators and information organizers 2008-01-24
- APIs and the art of building powerful programs 2008-01-14
- Non-abelian money 2007-08-25
- Kasparov versus the World 2007-08-21
- Micropublication and open source research 2007-08-16
- The Research Funding "Crisis" 2007-08-14
- Open Source Google 2007-08-08
- An introduction to Yang-Mills theories 2007-05-09
- Limits to collective decision making: Arrow's theorem 2006-06-30
- The Fermionic canonical commutation relations and the Jordan-Wigner transform 2005-07-29
- Introduction to expander graphs 2005-06-22
- Journal club on quantum gravity 2005-04-15
- What's Wrong with those Quantum Cryptosystems? 2004-08-17
- What's wrong with those quantum cryptosystems 2004-08-17
- Operator monotone and operator convex functions: a survey 2004-06-29
- Bloch's theorem and Bravais lattices 2004-06-10
- Technical notes on linear matrix equations 2004-06-06
- Interesting problems: The Church-Turing-Deutsch Principle 2004-04-16
- Journal club notes on the cluster-state model of quantum computation 2003-11-29
- Summer School Lectures on Quantum Information and Computation 2003-01-02
- Simple Rules for a Complex Quantum World 2002-11-01
- An introduction to majorization and its applications to quantum mechanics (draft of a book) 2002-10-18
- Quantum information science and complex quantum systems 2002-10-01
- Quantum information science as an approach to complex quantum systems 2002-08-13
- Universal simulation of Hamiltonian dynamics for quantum systems with finite-dimensional state spaces (Michael A. Nielsen, Michael J. Bremner, Jennifer L. Dodd, Andrew M. Childs, and Christopher M. Dawson) 2002-05-31
- Entanglement in a simple quantum phase transition (Tobias J. Osborne and Michael A. Nielsen) 2002-02-27
- Entanglement monotone derived from Grover’s algorithm (Ofer Biham, Michael A. Nielsen, and Tobias J. Osborne) 2001-12-17
- Entanglement, quantum phase transitions, and density matrix renormalization (Tobias J. Osborne and Michael A. Nielsen) 2001-09-05
- ROM-based computation: quantum versus classical (Benjamin C. Travaglione, Michael A. Nielsen, Howard M. Wiseman, and Andris Ambainis) 2001-08-04
- Causal and localizable quantum operations (David Beckman, Daniel Gottesman, Michael A. Nielsen, and John Preskill) 2001-06-14
- Universal quantum computation and simulation using any entangling Hamiltonian and local unitaries (Jennifer L. Dodd, Michael A. Nielsen, Michael J. Bremner, and Robert T. Thew) 2001-06-12
- Majorization and the interconversion of bipartite states (Michael A Nielsen and Guifré Vidal) 2001-05-28
- Separable states are more disordered globally than locally (Michael A. Nielsen and Julia Kempe) 2000-11-30
- Introduction to quantum information theory 2000-11-15
- Quantum information processing (E. H. Nielsen and M. A. Nielsen) 2000-10-17
- Theory of quantum computation (E. H. Knill and M. A. Nielsen) 2000-10-17
- Quantum Computation and Quantum Information (Michael A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang) 2000-10-01
- Characterizing mixing and measurement in quantum mechanics 2000-08-16
- Approximate transformations and robust manipulation of bipartite pure-state entanglement (Guifré Vidal, Daniel Jonathan, and M. A. Nielsen) 1999-10-23
- Probability distributions consistent with a mixed state 1999-09-06
- Continuity bounds for entanglement 1999-08-30
- Conditions for a class of entanglement transformations 1998-11-20
- Complete quantum teleportation using nuclear magnetic resonance (Michael A Nielsen, Emanuel Knill, and Raymond Laflamme) 1998-11-08
- Quantum information theory (PhD dissertation) 1998-08-15
- On quantum fidelities and channel capacities (Howard Barnum, Emanuel Knill, and Michael A. Nielsen) 1998-08-04
- Quantum entanglement and the communication complexity of the inner product function (Richard Cleve, Wim van Dam, Michael Nielsen, and Alain Tapp) 1997-08-11
- Information-theoretic approach to quantum error correction and reversible measurement (M. A. Nielsen, Carlton M. Caves, Benjamin Schumacher, and Howard Barnum) 1997-06-30
- Computable functions, quantum measurements, and quantum dynamics 1997-06-03
- Approximate quantum error correction can lead to better codes (D. W. Leung, M. A. Nielsen, I. L. Chuang, and Y. Yamamoto) 1997-04-02
- Reversible quantum operations and their application to teleportation (M. A. Nielsen and Carlton M. Caves) 1997-04-01
- Programmable Quantum Gate Arrays (M. A. Nielsen and Isaac L. Chuang) 1997-03-18
- Information transmission through a noisy quantum channel (Howard Barnum, Michael A Nielsen, and Benjamin Schumacher) 1997-02-26
- Prescription for experimental determination of the dynamics of a quantum black box (Isaac L. Chuang and Michael A. Nielsen) 1996-10-01
- Quantum data processing and error correction (Benjamin Schumacher and M. A. Nielsen) 1996-10-01
- Properties of quantum trajectories for counting measurements 1996-08-01
- The entanglement fidelity and quantum error correction 1996-06-13
- Chaos in the quantum measurement record 1995-12-09